Frisian language and literature
- Frisian belongs to the North Sea subgroup of the Western Germanic languages, to gether with English. From the 13th century, its language area has decreased from a long coastline (Northern Hollandto Denmark) to just the province of Frisia (north of the river of the Tsjonger). Variants of the language, however, are also still spoken in a few parts of northern Germany (Saterland in Eastern Frisia, Northern Frisia on the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and on the island of Hel goland). The Habsburg authorities replaced Frisian with Dutch in Frisian public administration during the 16th century. Neverthe less, the poet Gysbert Japiks (1603–1666) demonstrated that Frisian could still be used as a literary language. Influenced by the Romantic and nationalistic movements, this language was propa gated from the 1840s, among others by the Halbertsma brothers, Joast (1789–1869) and Eeltsje (1797–1858). Other important Frisian authors were Pieter Jelles Troelstra, Obe Postma (1868– 1963), Douwe Kalma (1896–1953), and Anne Wadman (1919– 1997). Publication of scholarly texts in Frisian was promoted by the Fryske Akademy, founded in 1938. Poet and journalist Fedde Schurer (1898–1968) stimulated the authorities to introduce Frisian into the public domain again. Since 1980, the Frisian lan guage has been a compulsory subject at the Frisian primary schools. Although the regional authorities and several churches use Frisian, Dutch remains dominant in public life.
Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. EdwART. 2012.
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Dutch language and literature — Dutch belongs to the Western Germanic section of the Indo European family of languages. The language is spoken in the Netherlands, part of Belgium (Flan ders), and a small part of northwestern France, as well as in the Netherlands Antilles and … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands
West Frisian language — language name=West Frisian nativename=Frysk states=NED region=flag|Friesland flag|Groningen speakers=360,000–700,000 familycolor=Indo European fam2=Germanic fam3=West Germanic fam4=Anglo Frisian fam5=Frisian nation=Netherlands agency=Fryske… … Wikipedia
Saterland Frisian language — language name=Saterland Frisian nativename=Seeltersk states=GER region=flag|Lower Saxony speakers=2,000 familycolor=Indo European fam2=Germanic fam3=West Germanic fam4=Anglo Frisian fam5=Frisian iso2=gem iso3=stqSaterland Frisian, also known as… … Wikipedia
Middle Frisian language — Middle Frisian evolved from Old Frisian from the 16th century and was spoken until ca. 1820, considered the beginning of the Modern period of the Frisian languages. Up until the fifteenth century Old Frisian was a language widely spoken and… … Wikipedia
Frisian literature — is works written in the Frisian languages, particularly that of West Frisian spoken in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands, from which most texts were produced or have survived. The first texts written in Frisian emerge around the 13th… … Wikipedia
Literature — See Dutch language and literature; Frisian language and literature … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands
language — /lang gwij/, n. 1. a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition: the two languages of Belgium; a Bantu language; the French… … Universalium
Frisian languages — Infobox Language name=Frisian nativename= Frysk / Fräisk / Frasch / Fresk / Freesk / Friisk caption=Bilingual sign in Frisian in Husum states=NED GER region= flag|Friesland|Fryslân (Friesland) flag|Groningen flag|Lower Saxony flag|Schleswig… … Wikipedia
Frisian literature — the literature that is written in West Frisian, a language closely related to Old English, and now spoken primarily by the inhabitants of Friesland, a northern province of The Netherlands. (The languages known as East Frisian and North… … Universalium
Frisian history — Frisia has changed dramatically over time, both through floods and through a change in identity. It is part of the Nordwestblock which is a hypothetical historic region linked by language and culture. Roman times The Frisians began settling in… … Wikipedia